Readings & Materials

Learn more about Diné experiences with disease, healing, and health from different generations. If you come across more sources, please share with Farina King to be added to this developing list and bibliography.


Allison-Burbank, Joshua, Emily E. Haroz, Allison Ingalls, Crystal Kee, Lisa Martin, Kristin Masten, Tara Maudrie, and Victoria O’Keefe. Illustrated by Joelle Joyner. Our smallest warriors, our strongest medicine: Overcoming COVID-19. Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health, IASC, 2020.

Alvord, Lori and Elizabeth Cohen Van Pelt. The Scalpel and the Silver Bear: The First Navajo Woman Surgeon Combines Western Medicine and Traditional Healing. New York: Bantam Books, 2000.

Aronilth, Wilson, Jr. Diné Bi Bee Ohoo’aah Ba’Sila: An Introduction to Navajo
Philosophy. Many Farms, Arizona: Diné Community College Press, 1994.

Aronilth, Wilson, Jr. Foundation of Navajo Culture. Tsaile, Arizona: Navajo Community College, 1992.

Benally, Malcolm. Bitter Water: Diné Oral Histories of the Navajo-Hopi Land Dispute. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2011.

Bighorse, Tiana, Nöel Bennett, and Barry Lopez. Bighorse the Warrior. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994.

Bitsóí, Alastair Lee and Brooke Larsen, Des. New World Coming: Frontline Voices on Pandemics, Uprisings, and Climate Crisis. Salt Lake City: Torrey House Press, 2021.

Blue, Martha. The Witch Purge of 1878: Oral and Documentary History in the Early Navajo Reservation Years. Tsaile, Arizona: Navajo Community College Press, 1988.

Boyce, George Arthur. When Navajos Had Too Many Sheep: The 1940’s. San Francisco, California: The Indian Historian Press, 1974.

Brugge, Doug, Timothy Benally, and Esther Yazzie-Lewis. The Navajo People and Uranium Mining. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2007.

Chamberlain, Kathleen P. Under Sacred Ground: A History of Navajo Oil, 1922-1982. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000.

Davies, Wade. Healing Ways: Navajo Health Care in the Twentieth Century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2009.

DeJong, David H. “If You Knew the Conditions”: A Chronicle of the Indian Medical Service and American Indian Health Care, 1908-1955. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2008.

DeJong, David H. Plagues, Politics, and Policy: A Chronicle of the Indian Health Service, 1955-2008. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2011.

Denetdale, Jennifer. Reclaiming Diné History: The Legacies of Navajo Chief Manuelito and Juanita. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2007.

Deyhle, Donna. Reflections in Place: Connected Lives of Navajo Women. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2009.

Elliott, Erica M. and Joan Borysenko. Medicine and Miracles in the High Desert: My Life Among the Navajo People. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press, 2019.

Farella, John R. The Main Stalk: A Synthesis of Navajo Philosophy. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1984.

Fox, Sarah Alisabeth. Downwind: A People’s History of the Nuclear West. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014.

Frisbie, Charlotte J. Food Sovereignty the Navajo Way: Cooking with Tall Woman. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2018.

Gill, S.D. Sacred Words: A Study of Navajo Religion and Prayer: Contributions in Intercultural and Comparative Studies. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Hadley, Linda and Roger Hathale. Hózhǫ́ǫ́jí hane: Blessingway. Rough Rock, Arizona: Rough Rock Demonstration School, 1986.

Halpern, Katherine Spencer and Susan Brown McGreevy. Washington Matthews: Studies of Navajo Culture, 1880-1894. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997.

Hartog, Cocia. Indian Mission Sketches: Descriptions and Views of Navajo Life in the Rehoboth Mission School and Stations, Tohatchi and Zuni. Gallup. New Mexico: Self-published, 1910-1911.

Holiday, John and Robert S. McPherson. A Navajo Legacy: The Life and Teachings of John Holiday. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2005.

Iverson, Peter. Diné: A History of the Navajos. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press, 2002.

Joe, Jennie R. and Robert S. Young, eds. Diabetes as a Disease of Civilization: The Impact of Culture Change on Indigenous Peoples. New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1993.

Keeney, Bradford, ed. Walking Thunder: Diné Medicine Woman. Philadelphia, PA: Ringing Rocks Press, 2001.

Kelly, Lawrence C. The Navajo Indians and Federal Indian Policy, 1900-1935. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1968.

Kelley, Klara and Harris Francis. A Diné History of Navajoland. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2019.

King, Farina. The Earth Memory Compass: Diné Landscapes and Education in the Twentieth Century. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2018.

Kristofic, Jim. Medicine Women: The Story of the First Native American Nursing School. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2019.

Kunitz, Stephen. Disease Change and the Role of Medicine: The Navajo Experience (Comparative Studies of Health Systems and Medical Care). Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. First edition.

Lee, Lloyd L. Diné Identity in a Twenty-First-Century World. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2020.

Lee, Lloyd L., ed. Diné Perspectives: Revitalizing and Reclaiming Navajo Thought. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2014.

Lee, Lloyd L., ed. Navajo Sovereignty: Understandings and Visions of the Diné People. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2017.

Locke, Raymond Friday. The Book of the Navajo. New York: Holloway House
Publishing, 2001.

McCloskey, Joanne. Living Through the Generations: Continuity and Change in Navajo Women’s Lives. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2007.

McPherson, Robert S. Dinéjí Na’nitin: Navajo Traditional Teachings and History. University of Colorado Press, 2012.

McPherson, Robert S. Navajo Land, Navajo Culture: The Utah Experience in the Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

McPherson, Robert S. Sacred Land, Sacred View: Navajo Perceptions of the Four Corners Region. Provo, Utah: Charles Redd Center for Western Studies, 1992.

Moss, Margaret P., ed. American Indian Health and Nursing. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2015.

O’Neill, Colleen. Working the Navajo Way: Labor and Culture in the Twentieth Century. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005.

Oshley, N. and Robert S. McPherson. The Journey of Navajo Oshley: An Autobiography and Life History. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2000.

Parman, Donald L. The Navajos and the New Deal. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1976.

Pasternak, Judy. Yellow Dirt: An American Story of a Poisoned Land and a People Betrayed. New York: Free Press, 2010.

Rife, James P. and Alan J. Dellapenna. Caring and Curing: A History of the Indian Health Service. Terra Alta, West Virginia: PHS Commissioned Officers Foundation for the Advancement of Public Health, 2009.

Rhoades, Everett R., ed. American Indian Health Innovations in Health Care, Promotion, and Policy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

Roessel, Robert A. Dinétah: Navajo History Vol. II. Rough Rock, Arizona: Navajo
Curriculum Center and Title IV-B Materials Development Project, Rough Rock Demonstration School, 1983.

Schwarz, Maureen Trudelle. Blood and Voice: Navajo Women Ceremonial Practitioners. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2003.

Schwarz, Maureen Trudelle. “I Choose Life”: Contemporary Medical and Religious Practices in the Navajo World. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2008.

Schwarz, Maureen Trudelle. Molded in the Image of Changing Woman: Navajo Views on the Human Body and Personhood. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1997.

Schwarz, Maureen Trudelle. Navajo Lifeways: Contemporary Issues, Ancient Knowledge. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.

Trennert, Robert A. White Man’s Medicine: Government Doctors and the Navajo, 1863-1955. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1998.

Voyles, Traci Brynne. Wastelanding: Legacies of Uranium Mining in Navajo Country. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Weisiger, Marsha. Dreaming of Sheep in Navajo Country. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2009.

White, Richard. The Roots of Dependency: Subsistence, Environment, and Social Change among the Choctaws, Pawnees, and Navajos. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988.

Witherspoon, Gary. Language and Art in the Navajo Universe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1977.

Wyman, Leland Clifton and Bernard Haile. Blessingway. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1970.


Atencio, Mario, Hazel James-Tohe, David Tsosie, Ally Beasley, Soni Grant, and Teresa Seamster. “Federal Statutes and Environmental Justice in the Navajo Nation: The Case of Fracking in the Greater Chaco Region.” American Journal of Public Health 112 (2022): 116-123.

Begay, R. Cruz. “Changes in Childbirth Knowledge.” American Indian Quarterly 28, no. 3 (Summer 2004): 550-565.

Begay, R. Cruz. “Navajo Birth: A Bridge Between the Past and the Future.” In Childbirth Across Cultures: Ideas and Practices of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the Postpartum, eds. Helaine Selin and Pamela Kendall Stone, 245-253. London: Springer, 2009.

Brady, Benjamin R. and Howard M. Bahr. “The Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1920 among the Navajos: Marginality, Mortality, and the Implications of Some Neglected Eyewitness Accounts.” American Indian Quarterly Vol. 38, No. 4 (Fall 2014): 459-491.

Brugge, Doug and Rob Goble. “The History of Uranium Mining and the Navajo People.” American Journal of Public Health 92, no. 9 (September 2002): 1410-1419.

Colmant, Stephen A. and Rod J. Merta. “Using the Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Group Therapy for Navajo Youth.” Journal for Specialists in Group Work Vol. 24, No. 1 (March 1999): 55-73.

Coulehan, John L. “Navajo Indian Medicine: Implications for Healing.” The Journal of Family Practice, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1980): 55-61.

Csordas, Thomas J. “The Navajo Healing Project.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 4, Theme Issue: Ritual Healing in Navajo Society, December 2000, pp. 463-475,

Curley, Andrew. “Unsettling Indian Water Settlements: The Little Colorado River, the San Juan River, and Colonial Enclosures,” Antipode: A Radical Journal of Geography, published online April 15, 2019.

Denetdale, Jennifer. “‘Building the Perfect Human to Invade’: Dikos Ntsaaígíí-19 (COVID-19) from Border Towns to the Navajo Nation.” In Kent Blansett, Cathleen D. Cahill, and Andrew Needham, eds. Indian Cities: Histories of Indigenous Urbanization. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2022.

Garrity, John F. “Jesus, Peyote, and the Holy People: Alcohol Abuse and the Ethos of Power in Navajo Healing.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly 14, no. 4 (December 2000): 521-542.

Gerald, Lynn B., Bryan Simmons, Ashley A. Lowe, Andrew H. Liu, Peter Nez, Elvira Begay, and Bruce Bender. “COVID-19 on the Navajo Nation: Experiences of Diné Families of Children with Asthma.” Journal of Asthma (May 2022).

Hoskie, Anderson. “Hataal: Navajo Healing System.” Leading the Way: The Wisdom of the Navajo People 11, no. 6 (June 2013): 2-4.

Joe, Jennie R., Robert S. Young, Jill Moses, Ursula Knoki-Wilson, and Johnson Dennison. “At the Bedside: Traditional Navajo Practitioners in a Patient-Centered Health Care Model.” American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 28-49.

Joe, Jennie R., Jacquetta Swift, and Robert S. Young. “The Rationing of Healthcare and Health Disparity For the American Indians/Alaska Natives.” In Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care; Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, editors. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2003.

Jones, David S. “The Health Care Experiments at Many Farms: The Navajo, Tuberculosis, and the Limits of Modern Medicine, 1952-1962.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 76, No. 4 (2002): 749-790.

Kim, Catherine and Yeong S. Kwok. “Navajo Use of Native Healers.” JAMA Internal Medicine. November 9, 1998.

Lesnes, Corine. “En terres Navajo, la médecine ‘aux mains qui tremblent.’ Le Monde, August 10, 2019.

Levy, Jerrold E. “Traditional Navajo Health Beliefs and Practices.” In Disease Change and the Role of Medicine: The Navajo Experience, ed. Stephen J. Kunitz, 119. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

Ostler, Jeffrey. “Disease Has Never Been Just Disease for Native Americans.” The Atlantic (April 29, 2020).

Raitt, Thomas M. “The Ritual Meaning of Corn Pollen among the Navajo Indians.” Religious Studies 23, no. 4 (December 1987): 523-530.

Ramenofsky, Ann F., Alicia K. Wilbur, and Anne C. Stone. “Native American Disease History: Past, Present and Future Directions.” World Archaeology 35, no. 2 (2003): 241-57.

Reagan, Albert B. “The ‘Flu’ among the Navajos.” Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science Vol. 30 (April 1919-February 1921): 131-138.

Rhoades, Everett R. “The Indian Health Service and Traditional Indian Medicine.” In “History of Medicine” (October 2009), AMA Journal of Ethics: Illuminating the Art of Medicine.

Schwarz, Maureen T. “Emplacement and Contamination: Mediation of Navajo Identity through Excorporated Blood,” Body & Society 15, no. 2 (2009): 145-168.

Schwarz, Maureen T. 2008 “‘Lightning Followed Me’: Contemporary Navajo Cancer Therapeutic Strategies.” In Religion and Healing in Native America: Pathways for Renewal, ed. Suzanne Crawford O’Brien (with Linda Barnes and Susan Sered as series editors). Connecticut: Praeger Press, 2008, pp. 68-109.

Storck, M., T.J. Csordas, and M. Strauss. “Depressive Illness and Navajo Healing.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, December 2000, 14 (4): 571-597. Access online.

Torpy, Sally J. “Native American Women and Coerced Sterilization: On the Trail of Tears in the 1970s.” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 24, no. 2 (2000): 1-22.

Tusatto, Robert, Terrie C. Reeves, W. Jack Duncan, and Peter M. Ginter. “Indian Health Service: Creating a Climate for Change.” In Public Health: Leadership and Management Cases and Context, edited by Stuart A. Capper, Peter M. Ginter, Linda E. Swayne. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2001, p. 265.

Voyles, Traci Brynne. “Intimate Cartographies: Navajo Ecological Citizenship, Soil Conservation, and Livestock Reduction.” In American Studies, Ecocriticism, and Citizenship: Thinking and Acting in the Local and Global Commons, eds. Joni Adamson and Kimberly N. Ruffin. Routledge, 2013.

Yellowhorse, Sandra. “Disability and Indigenous resistance: mapping value politics during the time of COVID-19.” AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples (2022).


Capelin, Emily Fay. “The Source of the Sacred: Navajo Corn Pollen: Hááne’
Baadahoste’ígíí (Very Sacred Story).” Senior thesis, The Colorado College, 2009.

Jones, Rachelle Geri. “Maintaining Hózhó: Perceptions of Physical Activity, Physical Education and Healthy Living Among Navajo High School Students.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Arizona State University, 2015.

Leonard, Leland. “The Relationship Between Navajo Adolescents’ Knowledge and Attitude of Navajo Culture and Their Self-Esteem and Resiliency.” Ed.D. dissertation, Arizona State University, 2008.

Long, Valerie E. “An Assessment of a Video on the Link Between Diabetes and Periodontal Disease to Educate Native American Populations.” University of New Mexico, 2019.

McBride, Preston S. “A Lethal Education: Institutionalized Negligence, Epidemiology, and Death in Native American Boarding Schools, 1879-1934.” University of California, Los Angeles, 2020.

Theobald, Brianna. “The Simplest Rules of Motherhood”: Settler Colonialism and the Regulation of American Indian Reproduction, 1910-1976.” Arizona State University, 2015.

Wick, John W. “An Analysis of the Shamanistic Healing Practices of the Navajo American Indians through Mircea Eliades’s Theories of Time, Space and Ritual.” Trinity College, 2013.

Yazzie, Elerina. “Protection of Navajo Sacred Objects.” M.A. thesis, University of Kansas, 2008.

Yazzie, Melanie. “Contesting Liberalism, Refusing Death: A Biopolitical Critique of Navajo History.” University of New Mexico, 2016.


McCloskey J. (2004) Navajo. In: Ember C.R., Ember M. (eds) Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology. Springer, Boston, MA.

Smith, Tommy. “The Church Rock Uranium Mill Spill.” In Environment & Society Portal.


Begody, Candace. “Pay the price: Despite cultural concerns, Native women help change the face of medicine,” Navajo Times, March 19, 2009.

Blackwood, Alisa. “Navajo Nation Hopes to Revive Traditional Medicine,” Los Angeles Times, July 11, 1999.

Diné Elders, Medicine People at odds with Navajo Nation,” Arizona Daily Independent, June 24, 2014.

Donovan, Bill. “50 Years Ago: First Diné Doctor Hired,” Navajo Times, November 26, 2014.

Donovan, Bill. “Fake Healers Plague Navajo Nation,” High Country News, October 13, 1997.

Eisen, Erica X. “Indigenous Activists Are Reimagining Language Preservation Under Quarantine.” Slate, August 10, 2020.

Estes, Nick. “The Empire of All Maladies: Colonial Contagions and Indigenous Resistance.” The Baffler No. 52 (July 2020).

Hedgpeth, Dana. “How Native Americans were vaccinated against smallpox, then pushed off their land.” The Washington Post, March 28, 2021.

Hedgpeth, Dana. “Native American tribes were already being wiped out. Then the 1918 flu hit.” The Washington Post, September 27, 2020.

Innes, Stephanie. “The Navajo Nation has a cancer clinic, a tribal first.” AZCentral, The Republic, September 19, 2019.

King, Beth E. “The Utah Navajos Relocation in the 1950s: Life Along the San Juan River,” originally pub. July 1996 in Canyon Echo, reposted online on August 16, 2020.

Lynch, Karen. “Working to heal wounds of boarding school: United Nations panel hopes to undo the damage caused by U.S. government’s Indian boarding school policies.” The Native, 2004, accessed 21 August 2015.

Quintero, Donovan. “A history of epidemics: In past, Navajos survived many epidemics. Spanish flu, virus pose danger.” Navajo Times, April 19, 2020.

Perry, Leonard, ed. “Crownpoint New Mexico: Past and Present as viewed through the Crownpoint Baahane’ Newsletter” (Volume 1), self-published, 2009-2011.

Pressley, Sue Ann. “Navajo Healers Convene.” The Washington Post, June 4, 1993.

Roberts, Nicole. “7 Native American Inventions That Revolutionized Medicine and Public Health.” Forbes, November 29, 2020.

Saltzstein, Kate. “Navajo doctor blends tradition in practice.” Native Sun News, November 15, 2011.

Sandoiu, Ana. “The impact of historical trauma on American Indian health equity.” Medical News Today, November 27, 2020.

Serres, Chris. “‘Where is our humanity?’: A Minnesota man is on a mission to keep Native burial customs alive during the pandemic.” StarTribune, January 30, 2021.

“Sovereign Stories: COVID 19 & Health History in Indian Country,” Pollen Nation Magazine, April 19, 2020.

Sullivan, Meghan. “Students use ‘power of storytelling’ to highlight health inequities.” Indian Country Today, August 7, 2020.

“Sunday Morning” Viewers Aid Navajo Lacking Water (August 30, 2015)

Theobald, Brianna. “A 1970 Law Led to the Mass Sterilization of Native American Women. That History Still Matters.” Time. January 2, 2020.

Wade, Lizzie. “COVID-19 data on Native Americans is ‘a national disgrace.’ This scientist is fighting to be counted,” Science, September 24, 2020.

Wulfhorst, Ellen. “Father-son Navajo Indians draw on violent pasts to teach healing.” Thomas Reuters Foundation, June 24, 2016.

Yurth, Cindy. “EPA admin: Gold King Spill ‘Heartbreaking.’” Navajo Times (Durango, Colorado), August 13, 2015.

Yurth, Cindy. “Uranium miners, widows get warm reception,” Navajo Times, November 5, 2009.


Adams, Mikaëla M. “Social Distancing in the Age of Assimilation: The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1920 in Indian Country,” April 16, 2020, #COVIDintheSouth, Center for the Study of the American South.

Anguiano, Viviann. “The Navajo Nation’s Diné College Faces the Worst Coronavirus Outbreak in the Country,” Center for American Progress, May 21, 2020.

Benally, Hoskie. “A Sacred Relationship.” In Circle of Stories, Public Broadcasting Service.

Biography of Dr. Patricia Nez Henderson, Changing the Face of Medicine.

Chur, Elizabeth. “‘You Will Become Well’: Delivering Patient Care in the Navajo Nation,” June 15, 2015, UCSF School of Medicine.

Cozort, Daniel. “Healing: A Navajo Perspective.”

Ellis, Elizabeth. “COVID, Collective Resistance and Columbus: Celebrating Indigenous Peoples’ Day 2020,” October 11, 2020.

Flaherty, Julie. “For This Navajo Doctor, Listening is Medicine: Michael Tutt, M88, employs traditional and Western practices to heal his community.” TuftsNow, August 15, 2019.

Hay, Andrew. “Climate change is drying the lifeblood of Navajo ranchers as their lands become desert.” October 2020, Reuters.

Kahn-John, Michelle. “The Healing Power of Ceremony: The Integrative Health Benefits of Diné Cleansing Practice.” July 18, 2017, “The Health Dose: Updates from the experts at UArizona Health Sciences.”

Jennings, Trip. “Remembering the largest radioactive spill in U.S. history,” New Mexico In Depth, July 7, 2014.

Keene, Adrienne. “Sweat Lodges Part II: No, you can’t. Here’s why.” Native Appropriations.

Yellow Bird, Michael. “Decolonizing Coronavirus: Returning to Traditional Indigenous Prevention Strategies in the time of COVID-19,” Healing Voices Blog, National Native American Boarding School Healing Coalition, April 9, 2020.

Manueltio, Lacy. “My Struggles with Becoming a Diné Pediatrician,” AM Rounds, June 26, 2018.

Robinson, Perry. “Navajo and Western Medicine.”

Shone, Colton and Nathan O’Neal. “How the Navajo People are using culture to fight back against ‘Covid Monster.'”

Zotigh, Dennis. “Christmas Across Indian Country, During the Pandemic and Before,” National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Magazine, December 22, 2020.


American Indian Studies, Labriola National American Indian Data Center, Arizona State University.

Indigenous Governance Database, Native Nations Institute, University of Arizona.

Native American Health, Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona.

Native Health Database Full Text, Digital Repository, University of New Mexico.

Navajo Reservation Cultural Immersion- NUR/HS 4SG: Navajo Healing & Health Issues, Ashland University.

Radical Hope Syllabus, environmental history and climate change, 2018.

“Tommy Rock – Exposing Years of Uranium Water Contamination in a Navajo Community,” National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, January 9, 2017.


Adams, Beth with Brianna Theobald. “‘Reproduction on the Reservation’ tells history of forced sterilizations of Native Americans,” WBFO, NPR, October 29, 2019.

American Indian Policy Institute, “Stories of Resilience in Indian Country.”

Calderon, Sophia M. “HEALTH BYTES w/ Region 3 – Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Navajo Nation,” May 11, 2022.

“Indigenous Health First,” Indian Country Today, February 22, 2021.

“Shorts Program 4 Questions and Answer with MorningStar Angeline [filmmaker of Yá’át’ééh Abiní (2019)],” September 29, 2020,

Benallie, Brandon. “Navajo Nation responds to COVID-19 with mutual aid,” Peoples Dispatch, April 30, 2020.

Bichell, Rae Ellen. “Pandemic Complicates Tribes’ Quest For Data Sovereignty,” Mountain West News Bureau,, July 13, 2020.

Brown, Wallace. “Traditional Navajo View on Death and Grieving,” Navajo Traditional Teachings, October 8, 2018.

Changing Winds: Public Health and Indian Country, David J. Sencer CDC Museum, In Association with the Smithsonian Institution.

Chief, Karletta. “2019 SACNAS Featured Speaker: Dr. Karletta Chief (Diné),” December 17, 2019 posted on, Society for Advancement of Chicanos/Hispanics and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS).

Chief, Karletta. “Protecting the Waterways of the Navajo Nation,” Science Friday.

Clifford, Arnold, “Navajo Cultural Uses of Native Plants in the Four Corners Region,” March 16, 2015, School for Advanced Research.

“COVID-19 in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Demarco, Marisa. “Doctor Discusses Research Showing High Levels Of Uranium In Navajo Women And Babies.” KUNM, November 7, 2019.

Diné Virtual Talk Series, “Spiritual and Mental Wellness During COVID-19,” September 23, 2020.

Drywater-Whitekiller, Virginia. “COVID-19 in Indian Country as Viewed through the Seven Generations Principle,” posted on YouTube December 9, 2020.

Fox, Sarah Alisabeth. “Stories from Downwind: A People’s History of the Nuclear West.” Fairhaven College, WWU, 2016. See also Fox’s presentation for the Utah Archives Month 2015 at the Utah State Archives. Learn more on her Downwind website.

Sarah Alisabeth Fox: “Stories from Downwind”

Golden, Sherita Hill. “Coronavirus in African Americans and Other People of Color,” Health, Johns Hopkins Medicine.

The Health and Environmental Impacts of Uranium Contamination in the Navajo Nation,” Hearing before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, 110th Congress, First Session, October 23, 2007, Serial No. 110-97.

How the US Poisoned Navajo Nation,” Vox.

Hudetz, Mary. “US official: Research finds uranium in Navajo women, babies,” ABC News, October 7, 2019.

“‘If You Knew the Conditions…’: Health Care to Native Americans,” History of Medicine, U.S. National Library of Medicine.

King, Farina, “Diné Women in Medicine and Healing Through Generations” (virtual talk), Museum of Native American History, Bentonville, Arkansas, March 2022.

King, Farina, Heather Tanana, and Phil L. Smith, “Historicizing COVID-19 in Navajo Nation,” “Public Health and the Common Good” themed 69th Annual Utah State Historical Society Conference (virtual), September 2021.

Ingram, Jani. “SACNAS Biography: Dr. Jani Ingram,” February 5, 2014 posted on

In the Navajo Nation, a Focus on Health Data,” April 20, 2016, PCORI.

Ishak, Natasha. “Cold War-Era Uranium Mining Continuing To Cause Cancer In Navajo Women And Newborns.” All That’s Interesting, October 8, 2019.

Knoki-Wilson, Ursula. “Keeping the Sacred in Childbirth Practices: Integrating Navajo Cultural Aspects into Obstetric Care.”

“Mikaela Adams on ‘Influenza in Indian Country,'” April 22, 2020, “Social Distancing Lecture Series: Historical Perspectives on Sickness and Health,” sponsored by the Department of History at Davidson College.

NABS 2019 Webinar Series Episode 5, “Historical Trauma and Healing,” Featuring Roberta Paul (Nez Perce), Retired Director of Native American Health Sciences at Washington State University Spokane, June 6, 2019.

NABS 2019 Webinar Series Episode 6, “Mindful Decolonization, Healthy Ancestral Lifestyles, and the Medicine Wheel,” Featuring Dr. Michael Yellow Bird (Three Affiliated Tribes), Dean and Professor, Faculty of Social Work, University of Manitoba, August 8, 2019.

Native Voices: Native Peoples’ Concepts of Health and Illness,” U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Navajo Nation Day of Prayer, November 2020. Day 2 of Navajo Nation Day of Prayer.

Navajo Wellness Model: Keeping the Cultural Teachings Alive to Improve Health,” by Marie Nelson, January 4, 2018, Indian Health Service.

Navajo Epidemiology Center.

Navajo Nation Journalism with Pauly Denetclaw,” The Pandemic People Podcast, May 23, 2020.

Nez Henderson, Patricia, “COVID-19: Disproportionate Impact on Navajo Nation and Tribal Communities,” County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, July 9, 2020.

Powell, Catherine. Opinion, “Color of Covid: The racial justice paradox of our new stay-at-home economy,” CNN, April 18, 2020.

Rock, Tommy. “Uranium Mining and My Family’s Story,” Outrider Post.

Selected Plants of Navajo Rangelands, Diné bikéyah Chi’l nooséłígíí Bąąhą́ą́nosin, New Mexico State University, See also Navajo Nation Range Management Handbook (Cooperative Extension Service, University of Arizona, 1981).

Skeets, Jake. “The Other House: Musings on the Diné Perspective of Time,” Emergence Magazine.

Smith, Phillip L. “Generations of Indigenous Women Healers,” 2019 NSU American Indian Symposium, Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, video recording, April 12, 2019.

Teller, Terry. Daybreakwarrior on

Todd, Jenna. “The Medical Accomplishments of Annie Dodge Wauneka.” Annie Wauneka Presentation_Todd

“A rare interview with Dr. Annie Dodge Wauneka in 1958. Annie Dodge Wauneka was a very influential Navajo woman leader who represented Southern Navajo in the Navajo Tribal Council,” Southern Navajo Nation News, posted on Facebook on March 3, 2019,

Stumpff, Linda Moon. “Hantavirus and the Navajo Nation: A Double Jeopardy Disease.”

The Navajo Culture,” Multicultural Topics in Communications Sciences and Disorders, Portland State University.

Tsosie, William, “An Intimate Glimpse Into Navajo Culture,” October 12, 2015, Washington College.

“Water River Life-Giver: Water Crisis for the Navajo and other vulnerable peoples,” featuring Jonathan Nez, Janene Yazzie, Tommy Rock, Duane “Chili” Yazzie, and Barry Lampke, Dartmouth College, April 29, 2016.

Yazzie, Melanie. “Native people live under a constant threat of settler-colonialism,” Peoples Dispatch, April 30, 2020.


Amá. A Film by Lorna Tucker, 2018.

A New Hantavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993.

Behind the Mask. Indigenous Story Studio (iStory Studio), Indigenous Services Canada, 2021. 4 minutes.

Broken Rainbow. Distributed by New Video Group, 2006. 70 minutes.

Circle of Stories: Native American Stories From the Four Directions. Produced by Philomath Films and the Cultural Conservancy; producers, directors, editors, Hank Rogerson and Jilann Spitzmiller. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media, 2012. 51 minutes.

Dineh Nation: The Navajo Story. Produced by Russell Richards, 1992. 26 minutes.

Exercising Safe Sweats., 2020.

“Exercise Safe Sweats”

Hear Our Voices, 2004—a documentary short confronting issues with uranium mining by students of Monument Valley High School.

Lady Warriors. Produced by Corbis Documentaries, directed by John Goheen, 2002. 56 minutes

Our Story: The Indigenous Led Fight to Protect Greater Chaco. Directed by Michael Ramsey and Daniel Two, 2022. 48 minutes.

Shash Jaa’. Directed by Angelo Baca, 2016. 23 minutes.

REVERB: Coronavirus in Navajo Nation, Full Documentary, 2020.

The Return of Navajo Boy. Groundswell Educational Films, 2016.

Strings On the Rez: Revisited. A Film by Molly McBride.

Yá’át’ééh Abiní. A Film by Morningstar Angeline produced by the 2018 Sundance Indigenous Lab Grant, released 2019.

Yellow Fever: The Navajo Uranium Legacy. A Film by Sophie Rousmaniere, 2014.